The Fifth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing was held in Torrent, Spain from 18 to 22 September 2018. It was sponsored and organized by the Global Change Unit (GCU) from the Image Processing Laboratory (IPL), University of Valencia (UVEG), Spain. This Symposium addressed the scientific advances in quantitative remote sensing in connection with real applications. Its main goal was to assess the state of the art of both theory and applications in the analysis of remote sensing data, as well as to provide a forum for researcher in this subject area to exchange views and report their latest results. In this book 89 of the 262 contributions presented in both plenary and poster sessions are arranged according to the scientific topics selected. The papers are ranked in the same order as the final programme.