ALAMILLO DOMINGO, IGNACIO / ALARCOS TAMAYO, TERESA / ALFAYA SÁNCHEZ, DAVID / ALONSO MARTÍNEZ, ISRAEL / ARRIBAS FONTANILLAS, ISMAEL / AYMO, MAHMOUD / B
Index Foreword PART ONE: Governance Alternative dispute resolution mechanisms (as part of the Alastria governance) - Ismael Arribas I. Introduction II. Definitions and characterization of ADR solutions in the permissioned blockchain context III. The fundamentals of arbitration as an optimal solution in the permissioned-blockchain governance context IV. A proposal for Alastria 1. Specimen of inception 2. Components 3. Minimal common legal requirements 4. Challenges and recommendations for Alastria 5. Case of use: wine plantations V. References Alastria as a case of Internet governance - Moisés Barrio Andrés I. Introduction II. From technical governance to social governance 2.1. ICANNs creation 2.2. The creation of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) 2.3. ICANNs globalisation III. Concluding remarks: lessons from cyberlaw for Alastrias governance Validation and Governance in an Alastrian Testnet Node - David Contreras, José Luis Gahete, Israel Alonso, And David Alfaya I. Introduction to Alastria architecture 1. Quorum consensus protocol 2. Transactions II. Alastria members and nodes 1. Alastria Nodes Requirements 2. Alastria Nodes Configuration III. Alastria Operation 1. Regular introspection 2. Network analysis 3. Results IV. Conclusions and future works Alastria governance policies and ethics - Javier Ibáñez Jiménez I. Introduction 1. The relationship between agency problems, conflicts of interest and ethics from a general and legal societal perspective II. Ethics beyond governance organization in DLT permissioned networks III. The case of Alastria: conflicts of interest, implemented controls and alternative solutions in accordance with an ethical acceptable consensus 1. The bylaws of Consorcio Red Alastria, a private-law association 2. Conflicts of interest and related policies 3. Ethical code of the association IV. Specific components of governance in the Alastria model: agency problems in Alastria as a DLT associative consortium and node community for the development of a permissioned blockchains 1. Authority of nodes and transaction validation in Alastria 2. Conflicts of interest in the Alastria on-chain governance 3. Off-chain governance and agency problems in the Alastria model, and their meta-juridical or extralegal ethical and social projection Rewarding honest validators in Alastria - Pietro Marchionni I. Introduction: consensus among nodes in DLT 1. Consensus algorithm in Alastria: fault tolerance and node voting 2. The need to define a rewarding system for validating activity in a permissioned network 3. Objectives II. Alastria rewarding model 1. The optimal characteristics of a validator node as a prerequisite to set the optimal rewarding model 2. Alastria Rewarding Measure Algorithm 2.1. Key building elements 2.2. ARM formula 2.3. ARM calculation and simulation 2.4. Alastria Rewarding Measure strategy and marketing The value of leadership in Alastria governance - Salvatore Moccia I. Leadership as a matter of research II. Analysis: the evolution of leadership standards and conception III. Alastria governance seen from the entrepreneurial leadership viewpoint IV. Conclusion V. References PART TWO: DIGITAL IDENTITY The conceptual legal framework of Alastria identity - Ignacio Alamillo Domingo and Julián Valero Torrijos I. Contents II. The convenience of a conceptual legal framework for the Alastria self-sovereign identity initiative 1. The alignment of the Alastria identity with the regulatory framework for the usage of identification systems by the national public sector bodies 2. The influence of the interoperability framework for cross-border electronic identification in the European Union: the eIDAS Regulation 3. The convenience of offering support for compliance with the formal identification obligations contained in anti-money laundering regulations III. Guidance for the Alastria trust framework and identity interoperability agreements IV. References Characterization and importance of cyber-identity in permissioned networks - Elena Davara Fernández de Marcos I. Introduction to the concepts of cyber-identity and permissioned internet networks 1. Cyber-identity as a digital personal identity 2. Permissioned networks II. Data security and vulnerabilities: the need of effectiveness in regulatory implementations, and the role of blockchain within this context 1. The role of the DLT 2. Introductory GDPR issues 2.1. Profiles 2.2. Biometric data 3. Self-sovereign identity in the DLT context 4. A word on the Alastria self-sovereign identity The value of Alastria identity for public administrations - Pedro Martín Jurado I. Blockchain and improvement of efficiency in Public Administrations II. The digital identification of citizens and the functions of public administrations 1. Self-sovereign identity in the relations between public administrations and citizens 2. The European Self-Sovereign Identity Framework 3. Some issues on the accreditation of European citizens, and the initiatives of the European Commission 4. Reference to the Alastria network within the current public permissioned Blockchain identity context PART THREE: SUPERSTRUCTURES Smart contracts and decentralized applications in Alastria: the case of Spanish wine - M. Aymo, C. Bellón, and R. Sáenz-Díaz I. Idea in brief II. Introduction III. The wine industry in Spain IV. Use case: exporting Rioja wine. Situation today 1. The Alastria Wine Solution 2. Supply Chain Management Issues 3. Alpha version of the Alastria Wine Solution. Application to Rioja wine exports V. Conclusions for all stakeholders The use of smart contracts for public tenders in the Región of Aragón (Spain) - M. A. Bernal Blay I. Blockchain for the public sector II. A distributed ledger for offers in public procurement 1. Context and initial objective 2. Smart contracts for the evaluation of the offers III. Some tips about the project: the public procurement of innovation IV. Other use cases Accounting and non-financial firm data tokens in Alastria - E. M. Ibáñez I. A word on tokens as a historic source of accountancy registration and record of transactions II. DLT Utility in accountancy III. the digital audit of accounting information in public permissioned networks 1. Stakeholder integration and benefits in public permissioned blockchains by audit smart contracts: a preliminary consideration 2. A sample of registered auditable transaction in the Alastria permissioned blockchain IV. Preliminary findings V. References Primary and secondary market tokens in Alastria: the case of olive oil tokens - Antonio Partal Ureña I. Blockchain and Alastria market utilities II. A word on market tokenization III. A project for olive oil tokens on the Alastria T Network 1. Traceability functions 2.The olive oil token market IV. Conclusion PART FOUR: Proofs of concept Alastria smart contracts for the Women Startup Community (WSC) - Teresa Alarcos Tamayo I. The Women Startup Community (WSC) and the feminine talent in the digital era, and the transformation of entrepreneurship II. The goal of increasing the transformational and social power of womens businesses and the inspiration of woman leaders in the digital era III. The Alastria-WSC connection and the fundamentals of the TT Trust Token Security, order and freedom in the blockchain era: the case of Spain - Pablo Gallego Rodríguez I. Foreword II. Public order and security III. Alastria multisectorial consortium and its contribution to guarantee effective protection of public constitutional order and public security Rewarding recycling plastic proof of concept with tokenization and smart contracts in Alastria - Josep Lluis de la Rosa I. Introduction: Issue at hand II. Hypothesis and precedents 2.1. Discounts and presents arent working enough 2.2. Lotteries redistribute the individual rewards 2.3. Lotteries and rewards programmes need of transparency III. Tokenization as a Type of Circular Economy IV. Minimum Valuable Product (MVP) Design 4.1. The proof of work 4.2. Tokenising the tax discount 4.3. Tokenising the Special Lotteries 4.4. Smart contracts for lotteries 4.5. Illustrative use case V. The platform approach and implementation VI. Results VII. Conclusions VIII. Acknowledgements IX. About us X. References Boosting coopetition through Alastria, data sharing and Artificial Intelligence - Julen Milan and Antonio D. Masegosa I. Introduction II. Artificial intelligence and the data collection problem III. The key role of Alastria in data sharing as a distributed ledger IV. Related work V. Alastria for boosting coopetition through data-sharing and Artificial Intelligence 1. Coopetition and AI development challenges in blockchain recent environments 2. The Alastria model and its advantages for the implementation of AI methods 3. Existing AI models replicable in the Alastria network VI. Conclusions and future work VII. References Blockchain, real estate asset tokenization and its protection by the land registry - Jesús Sieira and Jimena Campuzano I. Tokenization of real estate assets under Spanish law II. Taking real estate transactions to the blockchain III. Land Registry: Legality control and erga omnes protection IV. The Land Registry as the link between the on-chain and off-chain world: Land Registry protection and publicity of tokenization V. Legal configuration of tokens representing rights in rem on real estate VI. Effects of the entry of Tokenized Rights in rem to the Land Registry VII. Conclusion VIII. References PART FIVE: CIVIL LIABILITY AND RELATED LEGAL ISSUES The principles of Alastria under spanish civil law - Mirari Barrena I. Legal entity: Association. The kind of legal institution chosen for Alastria constitution II. The Alastria legal principles 1. Open access of members 2. Open-source software development 3. Public and permissioned characterization of the network 4. National body of associated members 5. Technological neutrality 6. Multi-sectorial membership 7. Interoperability 8. Collaboration and incentive systems 9. Decentralization and distributed power 9.1. General Assembly: 9.2. Board of Directors: 9.3. Commissions 10. Public-service orientation Alastria multilateral contract: a civil law approach - Carlos de Cores I. Introduction II. Collaborative nature of the Alastria consortium and its incidence on its liability model 1. New paradigms of liability in the information society 2. Multilateral contracts and Alastria 3. Different models of liability according to different relationship 3.1 Relationships among Alastrias members 3.2. Relationships with third parties III. Liability related to the services rendered by the consortium and or its members 1. Concept of information society services 2. Taxonomy of information society service providers 3. Alastria as an information society service provider 4. Liability of society information service providers 5. Liability by design IV. Conclusion Robots, Smart contracts and civil liability in Alastria - M. Reyes Corripio Gil-Delgado I. Robots and civil liability within a DLT or blockchain operative context: a preliminary approach 1. A civil personality for robots 2. A strict liability system II. Alastria Blockchain and Smart Contract
Governance of permissioned blockchains is a key issue for the short-term success and further development and consolidation of decentralized ledger technology (DLT) general purpose networks. The present book, written by thirty authors and directed by Prof. Ibáñez, one of the Consorcio Red Alastria blockchain community cofounders, shows how this pioneer worldwide public-permissioned national ecosystem, Alastria, is to be governed and organized. The different sections of this collective work analyze the mission and vision of Alastria from a multidisciplinary viewpoint encompassing the technological, economic and legal perspectives of its mission and vision. This collective task also encompasses key issues concerning self-sovereign digital identity, decentralized applications, smart contracts and other legal issues related with the creation, expansion and strategic anchorage of the aforementioned ecosystemic community, unique in Europe and in the world, showing the way for other permissioned consortia to boot in the forecoming years.